Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
ADHD is a reoccurring pattern of a lack of attention and very hyper actions that are not typical for a child of the same age. There are three subtypes of ADHD.
(314.01) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type. This subtype could be diagnosis if six or more of the symptoms for inattention or hyperactivity occur for at least 6 months. This is the most common type of ADHD.
(314.00) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type. This subtype could be diagnosis if six or more of the symptoms for inattention occur but less then six symptoms of hyperactivity occur for at least six months.
(314.01) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type. This subtype could be diagnosis if six or more of the symptoms for hyperactivity-impulsivity occur but less then six symptoms occur for inattention for at least six months.
Either (1) or (2):
1. A child could be considered to have an attention deficit if they have six or more of the following symptoms for at least six months:
2. A child could be considered to have hyperactivity-impulsivity if they have six or more of the following symptoms for at least six months:
Some hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms are seen before the age of 7.
Often the symptoms are seen in two or more setting such as at school and at home.
There must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning.
The symptoms are not associated with another disorder.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington , DC.
The causes of ADHD are largely unknown. Some studies have shown that genetic factors play a role, while others suggest that substances in the environment play a role. Some toxic chemicals (Lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) are known to interfere with the same aspects of learning that are atypical in ADHD, and may therefore contribute to ADHD. (childenvironment.org, 2002)
Individuals with ADHD are also more like to have a learning disability (15-25%), a language disorder (30-35%), conduct disorder (15-20 percent), oppositional defiant disorder (up to 40 percent), mood disorders (15-20 percent), and anxiety disorders (20-25 percent). Sleep disorders often occurs more often in children with ADHD. Also of children with tic disorder 60% of them have ADHD.
It is estimated that between 3-7% of school-aged children have ADHD.
Doctor's visits for ADHD has increased by 90% during the years of 1989 and 1996 (childenvironment.org, 2002).